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Writing blocks - 构建驳论的砖瓦blocks

John Harper

· Debates

Students often find the rebuttal speech, and other later speeches in the debate more difficult than the constructive speeches because the speeches require quickly responding to arguments the student has just heard. One way to make this easier is to prepare “blocks”.

你可能有时候会觉得驳论极其后续的发言环节比立论要更难一些,这是因为这些发言需要你迅速地回应刚刚听到的论点。有一种方法能让你更轻松地面对这些环节,那就是准备“blocks”

A “block” is a prepared bit of speech that you can use in your rebuttal speech in response to an argument. (The name “block” comes form the idea of building a speech out of smaller parts in the same way you might build a house or tower out of blocks.)

“block”是一个提前准备好的一小段发言,可以用在驳论中以回应对方的论点。(之所以叫做block是因为这些片段的发言就像建筑房屋时的砖瓦一样能够组成一个完整的发言)。

If you have prepared both sides of a topic you can make reasonable guesses about what arguments the opponent will make. So you can prepare replies to them in advance. This means you don’t have to think up new arguments in the moment, you can use stuff you have already prepared.

如果你同时准备了辩题的正方和反方,你就可以合理地推测在比赛中你的对手会有怎样的论点, 因此你可以提前准备好对这些观点的回应。这就意味着,你不用当场想出新的论点,而是可以用准备好的内容。

Let’s say you are preparing to debate “The United Nations is no longer important.” You would start by looking at the sample cases and research, and think of arguments for both sides. Once you have thought about which arguments each team is likely to make, as well as writing the best versions you can for when you are debating that side, you can prepare blocks to reply to them.

假设你在准备关于“联合国不再重要”这一辩题的比赛。你应该从阅读范例案例和research开始,然后想出正方和反方分别的论点。当你开始准备每方可能会使用的论点并且把最佳版本的论点写进案例里时,你可以同时准备应该如何回应这些论点。

For example, maybe you think that many Con teams will talk about the World Food Programme (WFP). You should then write a block responding to the arguments they’re likely to make.

举个例子,如果你觉得很多反方队伍都会使用联合国世界粮食计划署(WFP)的论点,那么你就应该写一个block来反驳他们可能会用到的具体论述。

Firstly, you might find some evidence of where the WFP is inefficient or has failed, and write the analysis and impact explaining that. Secondly, you could write out an argument that, even if the WFP is good, that doesn't mean the UN is important. Because any organisation that is given that much money could be equally successful, or better.

首先,你可能需要找到一些证据来证明WFP的效率低下或者曾经失败过,然后写出相应的分析和解释证据的影响(impact)。其次,你可以写出这样一个论点:就算WFP是好的,这不代表着联合国就是重要的。因为任何一个被给予如此多资金的组织都可以和WFP一样成功,甚至更好。

Notice here that one is attacking their warrant, by disagreeing that the WFP is effective, and the other is attacking their impact, linking the success of the WFP to the importance of the UN. This is often a good way to split up rebuttals, because it forces the opponent to defend in two ways at once.

需要注意的是,这两种方法中前者是在通过质疑WFP的有效性而攻击对方的论据,而后者是在攻击论点的影响,不认可WFP的成功与联合国的重要之间有联系。通常这是种好方法,因为它把驳论分成了两部分,从而迫使对方要从两个不同的角度辩护自己的论点。

When you are writing these responses you should write them just like any other argument in a debate. So include your claim, your warrant (why it is true, with evidence or analysis) and the impact (why this matters in the debate).

当你在写这些回应时,你应该像写论点一样准备他们。这意味着你要在其中包括主张(claim),论据(为什么你所说的是真的,并用证据和分析支持它们),以及影响(这对于整场辩论意味着什么)。

Remember that blocks are relevant to what your opponent’s argument. Avoid just hearing a particular key word, like “economy”, and then reading out a block that is generally about the economy but not relevant to what the other team actually said. This means that links and impact are even more important than normal, to make it clear to your judge why what you're saying is relevant.

要记住,block和你对手的论点息息相关。千万不要听到一个关键词(比如经济),然后就直接读出你准备好关于经济的、但和对方真正论述内容毫不相关的block。这意味着联系和影响比平常的论证更加重要了,只有这样才能让你的裁判清楚你的论证是和比赛相关的。

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