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3 Tips For Using Evidence in Public Forum Debate.

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1. Analyze the evidence that you introduce.

分析你引入的证据

The NHSDLC encourages competitors to build contentions using both logic-based and evidence-based warrants. However, a statistic alone will not persuade the judge that your contention is correct. Instead, you should analyze the evidence that you introduce. You can do so by considering the following questions:

NHSDLC鼓励参赛选手使用同时基于逻辑和证据的论述来构建论点。但是,数据本身并不能说服裁判,你应该对引入的证据加以分析。你可以通过考虑以下的问题分析证据:

1)Why does this evidence matter to the debate? Clearly explain how the evidence supports your contention. For example, many CON cases reference a 2013 Oxford study called “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerization?” Is computerization the same as Artificial Intelligence? You should explain how the study is relevant to your contention.

为什么这个证据对这场辩论是重要的?你需要清楚地解释证据如何支持你的论点。例如,很多CON case中都参考了2013年牛津大学的研究报告“就业的未来:工作多么容易受计算机化的影响?”计算机化和人工智能是一样的么?你应该解释清楚这个研究报告与你的论点有何关系。

2)Why is this evidence believable? Oxford is a world-renowned university, so it is safe to assume that the scholars of the study are credible. But if competitors are using evidence from a less-known source, they should explain to the judge why it is trustworthy.

为什么这个证据是可信的?牛津大学是一个国际闻名的大学,所以我们可以几乎可以肯定这个研究的学者的可靠性。但如果参赛选手使用了不知名来源的证据,他们应该向裁判解释为什么这个证据是值得信任的。

If debaters disagree about these questions, that disagreement becomes another issue within the round.

如果辩手们在这些问题上不能达成共识,这些争辩就会成为这场辩论中的又一个话题。在此处添加文本段落

2. Cite your evidence.

为你的证据添加引文

In written cases, competitors must include an in-line citation when quoting. You are also allowed to paraphrase evidence, meaning that you you put the original evidence in your own words. You must also use a citation when you paraphrase evidence.

在写case时,参赛选手必须在引用学术论文时提供文内引用。你可以转述证据,也就是用你自己的话陈述原本的证据。你在转述证据的时候也必须提供引文。

The NHSDLC recommends that you use footnotes or the Author-Year system for in-line citations: place the author and year in parentheses at the end of the sentence. If you use the Author-Year system, you must also have a list of sources at the end of your case.

NHSDLC推荐你在文内引用时,使用脚注或作者-年份系统:把作者和文章发表年份写在句末的括号里。如果你使用作者-年份的引文系统,你需要在文末列下文章的来源。

The following is an example of how to paraphrase and cite evidence:

According to two Oxford scholars, self-driving car technology will be cheaper and safer than human drivers in the near future. Therefore, transportation companies will replace human drivers will self-driving cars (Frey and Osborne, 2013).

以下是一个如何转述和引用证据的例子:

根据两位牛津学者的观点,自驾汽车技术在不久的将来就会比人类驾驶员更便宜、更安全。所以,运输公司将用自驾汽车代替人类驾驶员(作者名,发表年份)。

3. You can request to see your opponent’s evidence during your preparation time.

在自己的准备时间,你可以要求查看对手的证据

You can ask to see your opponent’s evidence or their entire case. Crucially, you can only make these requests during your own preparation time - not your opponent’s.

你可以要求查看你对手的证据或者他们整篇的case。重要的是,你只能在自己的准备时间——而非对手的准备时间——提出这些请求。

When one debater asks to review evidence, their opponents must accept the request. While you do not need to share the entire article, you must share the paragraph from which the quote or reference is drawn. It is a good idea for debaters to have their evidence saved as a separate computer document, or printed out, so that it can be quickly given to the other team.

当一个辩手提出查看证据的请求,他们的对手必须接受请求。你不必给对手看整篇文章,但你必须给对手看你引用的那一段话。我们建议辩手把他们的证据在电脑上保存成一个单独的文档,或打印出来,这样可以方便另一队要求查看。

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